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Childhood Development Essay

Childhood Development Essay

Childhood is the culturally defined period in human development between infancy and adulthood. In a historical perspective, this is a relatively new social construction. Early childhood, as an especially important “superperiod” of childhood, most often refers to the months and years between infancy and school age children (Corsini 345). To understand why childhood is such a crucial time in human life it is important to study the development before and after birth along with any factors that may alter life in between.

Heredity is the transmission of characteristics for parents to offspring through genes. Genes are information carriers. There are two types of genes, dominant and recessive. Dominant genes will emerge each time they are present. A recessive gene will only appear when paired with another recessive gene (Coon 88-89). These genes make each person unique. They determine what color hair and eyes you will have, your body type, and possible even your personality.

A problem can take place in any pregnancy. Such problems can be caused by fate or by fault. Genetic problems are cause by a natural defect in the genes, which are inherited by the offspring’s parents (Coon 88-93). These defects can result in a number of diseases. Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and sickle-cell anemia are examples of this type of abnormalities (Shelov 522-523). It can be said that genetics is all a roll of the dice.

Fortunately, through modern science, many of these defects can be diagnosed through prenatal testing. The invention and use of the ultrasound has made obstetrics a more precise science pregnancy a much less worrisome experience. In fact, ultrasounds have become so common that they are now used in ninety percent of pregnancies today. It is so common because it allows visualization of the fetus without the hazards of x-ray. Ultrasound works through the use of sound waves. Sound waves are bounced off internal structures and can be viewed with a TV-like viewing screen. The second most common test is maternal blood screening. This test is used to determine whether an amniocentesis is needed. During an amniocentesis amniotic fluid that surrounds a fetus is extracted and examined. Because amniotic fluid contains fetal cells, chemicals, and microorganisms it provides a wide range of information- genetic makeup, present condition, and the level of maturity of the growing baby (Eisenberg, Murkoff, and Hathaway, What to Expect When Your Expecting 44-51). There are many...

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Category:   Sociology

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