Literature Review on Crime and Migrants
Uploaded by kat_112 on May 21, 2012
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2011) defines a migrant as a person who lives temporarily or permanently in a country where he or she was not born, and has established social ties there. The long term trends in Australia (and worldwide) shows that migrants will continue to have an increasing contribution to population growth (Australia Bureau of Statistics 2010). This literature review will look to prove and understand if there is any correlation between crimes and migrants, this will be demonstrated through exploring current literature and trends suggesting there is no connection between migrants and crimes. This literature will also prove that it is not migrants responsible for crime, but more likely that it is second and third generation children of migrants raised in the country that participate in criminal activity because of marginalization.
Resident populations of countries typically presume that there is a higher likelihood of migrants committing crimes rather than native born counterparts (Kingsbury 2008; Press 2006; Yeager 1997). Yet recent statistics generally conclude that this is not the case, except when a group’s culture can legitimise illegal acts, in their adopted country (Tunick 2004; Yeager 1997) An example of this may include marrying young girls to middle aged males, as is the norm in many middle eastern countries but is a punishable offense in many western countries (Tunick 2004). Migrants are usually older (working age group) than those aged 15-24 years who are most likely to commit crimes (Yeager 1997). Migrants make the decision to come to a new country and have a fresh start; this is not something they are willing to risk, by committing crimes (Yeager 1997; Kingsbury 2008). In America, California, migrants make up 35% of the adult population yet they account for only 17% of the prison population. Statistics show that, those born in America are ten times more likely than their foreign born counterparts, to be incarcerated (Kingsbury 2008; Sampson 2008). Many also argue that migrants make for a safer community (Sampson 2008; Kingsbury 2008; Press 2006; & Dickey 2010) based on statistics in America in the 1990’s when crime fell and migrant numbers rose. Sampson (2008) explains this phenomenon stating that migrants often move into suburbs/areas that are deserted and less desirable and bring new life into them, often saving these places from becoming urban wastelands. Migrants also have strong family links, religious affiliations and support...