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Essay Questions Biology

Uploaded by CaseyP on Dec 10, 2016









Essay Questions
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Essay Questions
Q1.
The process of oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria. Electrons are moved from FADH2 or NADH to O2 to form ATP. It involves proton-motive force generation during electron transport. On the other hand, electron transport chain (ETC) is the series of organic molecules and proteins in the inner mitochondria membrane. Electrons moves through the members of the transport chain in a series of redox reactions (Murray, Rosenthal, and Pfaller, 2015). As a result, they release energy, which is captured as proton gradient to make ATP through chemiosmosis process. The high energy levels of NADH electrons make it a good electrons donor in a redox reaction. Therefore, it can directly transfer electrons to complex I. Contrary, the low energy levels of FADH2 makes it a poor electron donor; hence, it cannot move them to complex I.
Q2.
Glycolysis is the first stages of bacterial respiration that happens in a clear cytoplasm portion called cytosol. It involves splitting of glucose molecule into pyruvic acid, a two- 3carbon molecule. Next is the Krebs cycle where the Acetyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) breaks down into protons and carbon dioxide. It then releases energy in the form of electrons, which are used by NAD+ to form NADH. The last stage happens in the interior membrane of mitochondria. It involves the transfer of NADH from one protein to another.
Respiration does not require oxygen, it produces water molecules, glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, and it has a net gain of 32 ATPs. Conversely, fermentation requires oxygen, it does not produce water molecules, all reactions take place in the cytoplasm, and it has a net gain 2 ATPs.
Q3.
Carbon- constituent of cellular material
Oxygen- constituent of cell water and material
Nitrogen- constituent of nucleic acids, amino acids, and coenzymes
Hydrogen- constituent of cell water and organic compound
Phosphorous – constituent of phospholipids, nucleic acids nucleotides, and teichoic acids
Defined medium is a nutrient material with a known exact chemical composition while the complex medium is a nutrient material with unknown exact chemical composition.
Q4.
Functional media types are used in cell culture to facilitate microorganisms’ growth. They include differential, selective, and enriched media.
Transport media is used prevent overgrowth of contaminated commensals and organisms. Examples include alkaline peptone water and Cary-Blair medium.
Selective media is used to encourage and suppress the growth of desired microbes and unwanted bacteria respectively. For example, brilliant green agar, campylobacter agar, and EMB agar....

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Uploaded by:   CaseyP

Date:   12/10/2016

Category:   Biology

Length:   3 pages (601 words)

Views:   629

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