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History of Thinkers who led the Scientific Revolution

History of Thinkers who led the Scientific Revolution

Astronomy made up the majority of the Scientific Revolution, and only a few significant figures made significant advances in Astronomy, while church dogma hindered many efforts to make sense out of rational theories that were opposed to the Holy Scripture. Aristotle, father of science, was born in 384 B.C. and inaugurated the first theory to make sense of planets, stars, and the universe in general. In the 16th century Copernicus, created a theory rejecting some of Aristotle’s theory’s principles. Soon after Copernicus, Tycho Brahe meticulously plotted the theories and mathematical proofs of Copernicus. Johannes Kepler was a student of Brahe, and made use of Brahe’s neatly organized information. Brahe died soon before he could make use of it. Galileo relied on mathematics and empirical evidence to derive his conclusions, and farther promoted and refined Copernicus’ theory. The telescope helped Galileo immensely in proving his corresponding mathematical evidence. Sir Isaac Newton was a mathematical genius who had to create calculus to solve his challenging problems, made stunning discoveries with prisms and light, and came up with three physical laws of motion. Ecclesiastical forces suppressed all information “contrary to the scripture.”1 The Roman church’s threat could be felt by Copernicus, who hesitated for a very long while without publicizing his findings, and Galileo, who renounced his astronomical breakthroughs. Aristotle, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo were each an essential part of the Scientific Revolution – that moved from an earth centered universe to faith in a sun centered universe, and all made significant astronomical advances. Newton finalized what Galileo hadn’t, created calculus, and made impressive discoveries in physics and light properties.
1 Hooker, Richard. The European Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution. (1996).

Aristotle focused on evidence, and scrutinized absolutely everything to insure validity. He also exposed the famous Ptolemaic system. He used inductive reasoning and dealt with “epistemology,” or the study of knowledge. The Greeks believed that one should be careful when they assess how sure they are of the knowledge they have, or are studying. Aristotle stated that mathematical knowledge was certain, but everything else was a probability. Unlike Plato and Socrates, he didn’t demand certainty. His ideas were based on the four causes that bring change and motion: the material cause, or subtance, the formal cause, the model or structure on which a shape is made, the efficient...

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