150,000+ ESSAYS

Find more results for this search now!
CLICK the BUTTON to the RIGHT!

Need a Brand New Custom Essay Now?  click here

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics

The purpose of this experiment is to measure the rates of reaction of the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase with the substrate p-nitrophenol phosphate under varying conditions. The concentration of both substrate and enzyme were diluted and the inhibitor vanadate was utilized to determine whether or not the reaction is substrate or enzyme dependent and to see what type of inhibition vanadate was involved.

A class of proteins called enzymes catalyzes almost every chemical reaction in a cell. Enzymes increase the rates of reaction for those reactions, which are already energetically favorable, by lowering the activation energy. Enzymatic reactions differ from other chemical reactions, by having a higher reaction rates, greater specificity, and high capacity for regulation. Quite often, the rate of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction is 106-1010 times that of an uncatalyzed reaction under similar conditions. Enzymes are most effective under the optimal conditions of a cell, in which the cells aqueous environment is 37° C, and has a pH between 6.5-7.5.

Enzyme kinetics, the rate of reaction, and how this rate is influenced by different factors are directly correlated to the path followed by the reaction. For example, the enzyme-substrate reaction rate can be affected when there is a competitive inhibitor is involved. In the reaction, the competitive inhibitor competes with the substrate for the enzyme’s active site. This results in a lower reaction rate of the enzyme-substrate. On the other hand, noncompetitive inhibitors do not compete with the substrate for the active site and will not affect the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate, however, it will affect the maximum velocity of the reaction.

The catalytic action of an enzyme on a given substrate can be described by two parameters: Km (the Michaelis constant), which measures the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, and Vmax, which measures the maximal velocity of the reaction at saturating substrate concentration. From the Michaelis-Menton complex:

E + S « ES « E + P

Where E is the enzyme, S is the substrate, and P is the product. The rate of product formation V can be dertermined by the equation below.

V= Vmax [S]/[S] + Km

From this equation, we can predict that when the V is independent from [S] the reaction would be zero order, whereas when V is dependent on [S], the reaction is first...

Sign In Now to Read Entire Essay

Not a Member?   Create Your FREE Account »

Comments / Reviews

read full essay >>

Already a Member?   Login Now >

This essay and THOUSANDS of
other essays are FREE at eCheat.

Uploaded by:  

Date:  

Category:   Biology

Length:   5 pages (1,036 words)

Views:   8975

Report this Essay Save Essay
Professionally written essays on this topic:

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics

  • Cytochrome P450

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450 or P450) is the term used for a sizeable quantity of oxidative enzymes that are evolutionarily related. Th...

  • An Enzymes' Overview

    of enzymes as well as other types of catalysts" (Enzymes, 2002)....

  • Kinetics of Frog Muscles

    This paper addresses the kinetics and muscular structure that allow various movements by frogs. The author focuses on the frog's ...

  • General Overview of Kinetics

    motion. According to Newtons laws, "Law 1. Every body perseveres in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, ...

  • U.S. and Acupuncture Effectiveness

    In five pages this paper examines the relationship between the body and mind in this consideration of U.S. introduction to acupunc...

  • Charter School Rates of Attrition and Paper Introduction

    which appear to be much higher in charter schools. These two central concepts are discussed at length in the current literature....

  • Amino Acids, Enzymes, and Proteins

    proteins obtained by the body through its food sources. Amino acids sometimes function in the transport of molecules across cellu...

  • Digestive Process Insights

    enzymes maltase, sucrase, and lactase; the liver and gall bladder team contribute bile, hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin ar...

  • UK Biometric National Identity Cards

    2005 the bombers were all UK citizens and it is unlike that the holding of an ID card would have made any difference. In most case...

  • Alkaline Phosphatase

    the liver * liver production (used in conjunction with other tests) (Datta, 2005) Inasmuch as 20 to 140 IU/L is considere...

View more professionally written essays on this topic »