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3 pages in length. Scaramella et al's (2008) study underscores a critical component of developmental behavior in children that has historically lacked solid backing of scientific research. The authors illustrate the interconnectivity between generational influence and harsh parenting induced by the impact of socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds - rather than parents' education level as originally thought - that manifest in externalizing problems in toddlers. A particularly consistent finding of this study is how the combination of poverty and early parenthood equate to a higher incidence of harsh parenting inasmuch as this scenario is associated with greater hostility and less nurturing. Bibliography lists 5 sources.